Jeremy Rosenthal
Kyle Therrian
Derk Wadas
Bo Kalabus

Is a Polygraph Test Admissible as Evidence?


In nearly all cases, the answer is no. Despite the widespread use of polygraph tests in criminal investigations, these tests cannot be used to make a definitive determination that an individual is lying. What a polygraph does is measure minute physiological changes that the subject experiences while answering questions. These physiological changes can include a change in heart rate, increased sweating, and a rise in blood pressure. Although these can indicate that an individual is not telling the truth, they can also indicate nervousness or anxiety. Many factors can play into an individual’s polygraph test results, such as his or her emotional state at the time of testing, the individual performing the testing, and the way the questions are worded. Because of all the variables present that can alter a suspect’s results, most courts agree that polygraph tests are scientifically inaccurate. If you are a suspect in a criminal investigation and you are asked to take a polygraph test, do not take the test until you have discussed it with an experienced criminal defense attorney. You are under no legal obligation to take the test.

Should I Take a Polygraph Test?
You might think that taking a polygraph test will prove your innocence. Although volunteering to take a polygraph can be a tempting prospect, do not do it without consulting an experienced criminal defense attorney. There are certain very specific situations in which an attorney may recommend that a client submit to a polygraph exam for strategic reasons. A competent and experienced lawyer can advise you about the considerations involved. A polygraph can complicate your case in a few different ways. If you “pass” the test, law enforcement could potentially assume that you somehow “beat” the test. If you “fail” the test, meaning that the test picked up on physiological changes that could be correlated with untruthful answers, this can make you appear to be guilty and make you a target for further scrutiny. Even if a police officer were to tell you that you should take a polygraph test, you are never required to do so. Since 1990, polygraph test results have been inadmissible in all Texas criminal courts with very rare exceptions. Your attorney can help you determine whether taking a polygraph test is a productive choice for you. And if your lawyer sends you for a polygraph, the results can remain confidential. A failed polygraph is not an automatic conviction. Likewise, “passing” a polygraph test does not mean that you can not be found guilty later.

McKinney, Texas Criminal Defense Attorneys
If you are involved in a criminal investigation in any way, be proactive and start working with a Collin County criminal defense attorney as soon as possible. Call Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC today at 972-369-0577 to begin working with a member of our firm. Our team of criminal defense attorneys can help you with your case by providing you with the legal counsel and representation you need. Do not wait to begin working on your case with our firm.

Posted in Criminal Defense

Does the Law Protect People with Behavioral Disabilities?


We are seeing many children, teens and young adults coming through the court system that have been diagnosed with ADHD, ADD, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Tourette Syndrome and other disabilities that impact behaviors and can be at the root of behaviors that constitute crimes. These individuals should be given extra care when handling their case.

An attorney should be well-versed in understanding their client’s neurodevelopmental disorders or particular disabilities and making sure the courts and prosecutors are made fully aware of how these conditions impact their client’s case. A skilled attorney should also consult with experts in the applicable field in defending a client with neurodevelopmental disorders. Everyone has the right to an attorney, but these cases need an experienced attorney that is willing to go the extra mile in defending their rights and protecting them throughout the entire court process.

The law surrounding autism and other disabilities can be complicated. Please contact Rosenthal & Wadas if you have a son or daughter or know someone that suffers from a neurodevelopmental or behavioral disorder and is faced with legal issues.

Posted in Criminal Defense

The Five Most Common Illegally Used Drugs in Texas

Drug Possession Charges

The possession and distribution of illegal drugs is a common criminal offense in Texas and throughout the United States. The substances for which individuals are arrested for possessing and selling vary from state to state; some drugs are popular throughout the country and others are largely contained to specific states and regions.

In Texas, the following five substances are the most common drugs among individuals arrested for drug possession and those admitted to drug rehabilitation centers.


Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. Although it has been approved for medical and recreational use in some states, it remains illegal for all purposes in Texas. Individuals convicted of marijuana possession may face fines of $2,000 to $50,000 and jail sentences ranging from 180 days to 99 years, depending on the amount of marijuana they are found to possess. Individuals convicted of selling marijuana and producing marijuana concentrates face steeper penalties, which can include life in prison.


By far, most cocaine-related arrests and rehabilitation admissions are for individuals using crack cocaine, the rock form of the drug that can be smoked. Crack cocaine delivers a short, intense high to users and is considered to be the most addictive form of cocaine. Individuals convicted of the possession or sale of cocaine face significant fines and jail time.


Heroin is a powerful opioid synthesized with ingredients from the opium poppy. The bulk of the heroin found in the United States is cultivated in Afghanistan and Mexico. Individuals convicted of the sale and possession of heroin in Texas face consequences including fines and jail time, with offenders convicted of selling to minors facing harsher penalties than those convicted of selling heroin to adults.

Other Opioids

Heroin is not the only opioid found on Texas streets. Prescription drugs such as Vicodin, Percocet, Oxycontin, and morphine are all commonly sold, consumed, and abused by Texans. It is illegal to possess any of these drugs without a valid prescription and to sell them without a pharmacist license. Individuals convicted of the illegal sale and possession of prescription drugs can face significant fines and jail sentences.

Crystal Methamphetamine

Crystal methamphetamine, also known as “ice” or “glass,” is a party drug known for its clear, rock-like substance. It is a synthetic substance that has been used in the United States since the early twentieth century. Individuals convicted of the possession, sale, or manufacturing of crystal methamphetamine face penalties such as jail time and fines. As with other drug charges, the amount of crystal methamphetamine an individual is found to possess is a key part of determining his or her sentence.

Collin County Drug Charge Lawyers

A drug conviction has serious consequences. If you are facing any type of drug charge in Collin County, you need to begin working on your case’s defense with an experienced drug charge attorney right away. Call Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC today at (972) 369-0577 or toll free at (877) 538-8640 today to begin working with one of the knowledgeable drug charge lawyers at our firm.

Posted in Criminal Defense, Drug Crimes

Drug Possessions in McKinney, Texas

Drug Possession Charges

Drug possession is a serious crime in Texas, and it makes up a large percentage of criminal arrests. Indeed, Texas has some of the strictest laws when it comes to controlled substances and drug possession. According to a report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, drug-related crimes account for about 25 percent of all local jail inmates and about 25 percent of state prisoners. It’s important to understand the severity of a drug possession offense, but it’s also essential to understand your rights if you have been arrested.

Do not hesitate to contact an experienced McKinney drug possession attorney. One of the dedicated advocates at Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC can discuss your case with you today.

Understanding Drug Possession Charges

What do you need to know about drug possession penalties in McKinney, Texas? First, it’s important to understand that different drugs fall into different penalty groups. Then, once you determine the penalty group for the drug possession charge, the amount of the drug will also play a role in determining the severity of the charge. In general, the penalty for the crime will depend on numerous factors, including but not limited to:

  • Type of drug in possession;
  • Amount of drug in possession;
  • Presence of drug paraphernalia; and
  • Past convictions on your record.

Penalties for Drug Possession in Texas

When it comes to the type of drug, the following categories represent the different drug possession penalty groups in Texas:

  • Marijuana: in our state, marijuana has its own penalty group.
  • Penalty group 1: drugs in penalty group 1 include but are not limited to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and Oxycodone.
  • Penalty group 1a: this penalty group is specific to LSD.
  • Penalty group 2: drugs in this penalty group include ecstasy, PCP, and mescaline.
  • Penalty group 3: this penalty group contains many prescription drugs such as Xanax, valium, and Ritalin.
  • Penalty group 4: drugs such as morphine and opioids are classified in penalty group 4.

Different penalty groups come with different offenses, but the amount of the drug in question is a significant factor in determining the classification of your crime. Understanding that charges vary depending on the amount of the controlled substance in your possession, drug possession charges can include all of the following:

  • Class B misdemeanor;
  • Class A misdemeanor;
  • 3rd degree felony offense;
  • 2nd degree felony offense; and
  • 1st degree felony offense.

The more of the controlled substance alleged to have been in your possession, the more serious the classification of the crime. In addition to the amount, aggravating factors can also increase the severity of the penalty. While aggravating factors can increase a drug possession penalty, an experienced Texas drug crime lawyer can also help you to understand the possible defenses to drug possession charges in our state.

McKinney Drug Possession Attorneys

Learning that you’ve been charged with drug possession in Texas can be an anxiety-inducing experience. Given the severity of many drug possession charges in our state, you could find yourself charged with a 1st degree felony. While the laws surrounding drug possession are complex, an experienced McKinney drug crime lawyer at Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC, can assist you with your case.

Our team understands the seriousness of a drug possession charge, and we bring years of experience and dedication to each case we handle. Contact us in our McKinney office at (972) 369-0577 or toll free at (877) 538-8640 to discuss your case.

Posted in Criminal Defense, Drug Crimes

Drug Charges in Collin County, Texas

Drug Charges

While drug charges are serious offenses anywhere in the country, drug crimes in Texas carry particularly severe penalties. To be sure, our state is known for having some of the toughest drug laws in the U.S. As such, being charged with a drug crime in Collin County, Texas can be a very distressing experience. At Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC, we have years of experience assisting Texans who have been charged with drug crimes, and we dedicate ourselves to every case we take.

If you’re facing drug charges in Collin County, it’s extremely important to have a skilled advocate on your side throughout the proceedings. The sooner you speak with a Texas drug charges lawyer, the sooner we’ll be able to get started on your defense.

Learning More About Texas Drug Crimes

What kinds of drug charges exist under Texas law? Generally speaking, drug offenses in Collin County are governed by the Texas Controlled Substances Act. Drug charges can vary widely, including but not limited to:

  • Possession of a controlled substance;
  • Possession of drug paraphernalia;
  • Manufacture of controlled substances; and
  • Trafficking or distribution of controlled substances.

In order to be found guilty of drug possession in Collin County, the state will need to prove that you knowingly and intentionally possessed the drugs, or that you had control over the substances in question. When it comes to drug trafficking or distribution, you can be found guilty if you knowingly deliver any of the substances listed in the different penalty groups under Texas law—from marijuana to cocaine to Oxycodone.

Defenses to Collin County Drug Charges

When it comes to drug crime defenses, there’s some overlap among the defenses you can use for the possession, manufacture, and/or distribution of a controlled substance. Yet for every drug charge, an experienced Texas drug crime lawyer can speak with you about the possible defenses to the charge. Let’s take a look at some of the different defenses for separate drug charges.

Defenses to drug possession can include but are not limited to:

  • You had no knowledge that you were in possession of the controlled substance;
  • You did not actually have possession of the drug because you didn’t have control over it;
  • You were charged with marijuana possession, and the drug is medical marijuana; and
  • You have a valid prescription for the drug from a medical doctor.

In general, defenses to drug trafficking or distribution can include but are not limited to:

  • You didn’t have knowledge about the drugs in your possession; and
  • There has been a mistake of fact in which you believed you were transporting a legal substance but in fact were transporting an illicit substance.

Depending on the specific facts of your case, a dedicated Collin County drug offense attorney can speak with you about the best defenses to the drug charges you’re facing and can advocate for your rights each step of the way.

Contact a Drug Charge Lawyer in Collin County

Texans who are facing drug charges should know that drug possession and drug distribution laws in our state are very harsh. It’s extremely important to have experienced counsel on your side when you’ve been charged with a drug crime. An experienced Collin County drug charges attorney at Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC can discuss your case with you today. Contact us at (972) 369-0577 or toll free at (877) 538-8640 to learn more about how we can help.

Posted in Criminal Defense

Defense for DWI in Collin County


It is a sad fact that our great state of Texas leads the nation in drunk driving fatalities. Driving while intoxicated (DWI) is a serious offense that carries both criminal and civil penalties. But just because you’re arrested doesn’t mean you should plead guilty. An experienced DWI defense attorney can help have the charges against you reduced or dismissed.

Texas DWI Laws

A driver can be arrested for a DWI if his blood or breath alcohol concentration (BAC) is 0.08 or higher. A driver can also be arrested, regardless of his BAC, if his driving is impaired due to alcohol or other drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, or even prescription or over-the-counter medications.

Contrary to what you may believe, if you are pulled over for a suspected DWI you do have the right to refuse to submit to a breathalyzer or blood test. However, the refusal is not without consequences – there is the potential that your license could be suspended for up to 180 days for a first DWI. If you refused the breathalyzer or blood test, or if you took it and failed, we will immediately request an Administrative License Revocation hearing. If requested within 15 days of arrest, your license will be valid until a decision is entered at the hearing. Depending on the outcome of the hearing, your license may or may not be suspended.

Fighting a Blood or Breathalyzer Test

If the results of the blood or breathalyzer test show that you had a BAC of 0.08 or higher, it does not mean your case is over. There are many factors that could cause the results of the blood or breathalyzer test to be tossed out of court. These may include:

  • Officer’s failure to have reasonable suspicion to pull you over;
  • Faulty administration of the breathalyzer test;
  • Errors in the testing procedure or reading of the results;
  • Medical conditions, such as hypoglycemia, diabetes or heart disease, or even being on a low-carb diet, which increase acetone levels in your breath and may result in a false breathalyzer result, or;
  • Anxiety (a common reaction to being pulled over), which may also increase acetone levels in your blood.

Recognized Experience in Texas DWI Defense

The Collin County DWI attorneys at Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC utilize a “think tank” approach to their defense of all DWI charges. Throughout the lifetime of your case, beginning at arrest and ending when a verdict is reached, up to five of our experienced DWI attorneys will collaborate on your case to ensure that no possible defense strategy is overlooked. Every one of our DWI attorneys is certified by the National College for DUI Defense, an honor bestowed on only a chosen few who have proven vast skill and superior knowledge in DWI defense.

Collin County DWI Defense Attorneys Fighting for You

If you have been arrested and charged with a DWI, do not delay in contacting a Collin County DWI attorney at Rosenthal & Wadas, PLLC. There are many actions that can be taken to preserve your ability to drive and to get the results of a blood or breathalyzer test thrown out, but time is of the essence. If you live Collin County or the surrounding area, call our office today at 877.538.8640, or complete our online web form, to schedule your free initial consultation.


Posted in DWI

How Does an 11.07 Writ of Habeas Help a Convicted Person?

I recently answered a similar question in the context of a murder conviction where an individual was sentenced to 25 years imprisonment. The question also raised issues about the defendant being a first-time offender, having inadequate representation, false witness testimony and a prosecution based upon circumstantial evidence. In answering this specific question, I realized that these issues actually apply to a wide range of individuals seeking what is referred to as “post-conviction relief” in the form of a Writ of Habeas Corpus under Texas Code of Criminal Procedure Article 11.07. Below is the analysis of the specific questions raised.

11.07 refers to a post-conviction remedy under the Texas Code of Criminal Procedure Section 11.07 known as a “writ of habeas corpus.” There is not deadline to file an 11.07 writ of habeas corpus, but our courts say that delay in requesting 11.07 relief can have the effect of watering down an issue. As a rule of thumb, 11.07 relief is limited to issues which could not be raised during the course of the original representation. Let me address the issues you raise below.

First-time offender. Typically, this is what is referred to as a “punishment issue.” A judge or jury’s determination as to what weight to give a defendant’s clean record in punishment is almost impossible to change on appeal. Presumably, this was factored-in when determining a 25 year sentence.

False statements. These fall into two categories: (1) false statements which were believed to be false during trial and for which the defense had ample opportunity to confront through cross-examination, and (2) false statements which were learned by all to be false after the trial because a witness recanted. Generally, the second scenario would be a potentially fruitful area to investigate on an 11.07 writ of habeas corpus.

Circumstantial evidence. Circumstantial evidence is sufficient evidence to obtain a conviction. If a judge or jury determines that it adds up to proof beyond a reasonable doubt, this is very hard to contest through the 11.07 writ of habeas corpus process

Inadequate representation. This is one of the most common forms of 11.07 writ of habeas corpus, also known as “ineffective assistance of counsel.” If there was something that the attorney at trial should have done but didn’t and it can be shown that it affected the outcome of the guilt/innocence or punishment, this would be a good 11.07 issue.

You should consult with an attorney. The points made above are not absolutes. Many times the only way to know if there is an 11.07 Writ of Habeas issue is to hire an attorney to order a transcript and take a look under the hood.

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Posted in Criminal Defense

Criminal Appeals: Five Things to Know

Criminal appeals are complex. It would be impossible to distill the entirety of criminal appellate practice into five bullet points. On the other hand, some aspects of criminal appeals are more paramount than others–especially when it comes to determining whether to set aside some time to meet and discuss your case with a criminal appellate attorney. The list below is intended as a starting point in answering the question “do I or do I not exercise my right to an appeal?” 

Note: this discussion relates to direct criminal acriminal appealsppeals. In general, direct criminal appeals raise errors committed in the trial court. For a discussion of appeals raising matters that were later discovered or never brought to the trial judge’s attention, check back later for a discussion on “writs of habeas corpus.”

  1. What is the Deadline? Deadlines are the unstoppable force in any area of law. The right to an appeal is a waivable right. Texas Rules of Appellate Procedure Section 26.2 provides that an appeal must be “perfected” (requested) within 30 days after the court imposes or suspends a sentence in open court or enters an appealable order.  Alternatively, if a defendant files a motion requesting a new trial from the trial judge, the time to perfect appeal becomes 90 days. Barring an extraordinary exception, the right to appeal is waived if not requested within one of these timeframes.
  2. What Issues Can I raise on Appeal? An appeal is not an opportunity to try the case over again. Appellate courts give great deference to a judge or jury’s findings with regard to which facts are true and which facts are not true. An appellate court will entertain a dispute about the facts only if no reasonable fact finder could have found the essential elements of the offense beyond a reasonable doubt—this is rare. The most common appellate issues are disputes about the judge’s rulings which affected the outcome of the case. In particular, a judge’s ruling on the admissibility of evidence or on a motion to suppress evidence are among the most common issues raised on direct appeal.
  3. What are the Costs? Costs are distinguished from attorney’s fees. An attorney’s fee will vary depending upon the complexity of the case and anticipated legal work required to present an appeal. Generally, costs are charges incurred for any other purpose required to effectuate the appeal. Although the appellate court charges nothing to file an appeal, the rules of appellate procedure require a submission of the clerk’s record and the court reporter’s record. The clerk and the reporter charge for preparation of these records, absent a finding by the trial court that the individual is incapable of making such payment.
  4. How Long Does it Take Before the Court of Appeals Issues a Decision? Once an appeal is “perfected” (requested) it can typically take anywhere from three to nine months before the appellate court has everything it needs to start considering the appeal (transcript, clerk’s record, appellant’s brief, appellee’s brief). Once the court receives everything necessary to consider the appeal, a quick turn-around on issuing an appellate opinion would be six months. A number of factors outside the control of attorneys can cause this to take even longer, including whether the appellate court grants oral argument on the appeal.
  5. What Happens if the Court of Appeals Agrees with my Appeal? Once the court of appeals has considered an appeal, they will issue an “opinion.” (a written statement of the facts, law and court’s analysis). If the appellate court agrees with the issues raised on appeal, they can (1) reverse and render a judgment of acquittal, (2) reverse and remand. When the court reverses and renders an acquittal, it has determined that an error occurred and the law requires an acquittal. When the court reverses and remands, it states what the trial court’s error was and sends the case back to the trial court for the case to be resolved by the trial court in a manner consistent with the appellate court’s interpretation of the law. Usually, a reverse and remand decision is mere a formality after winning.



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Posted in Uncategorized

What Happens at a Juvenile Detention Hearing?

If your child has been arrested, you have probably been informed that he or she will be having a “juvenile detention hearing.”  If your child was arrested in Collin County this hearing will probably be held at the John R Roach Detention Center.  Under Chapter 54 of the Texas Family Code, your child is entitled to a detention hearing on the next working day following his or her arrest.  As long as you can be located, you are entitled to notice of this hearing, and anything your child says cannot be used against him or her at a later hearing or trial on the merits of the case (with the exception of if the child lies, in which case he could be prosecuted for perjury).  Unlike the adult system, at this point in the case, the judge is really just trying to get a feel for how the child is doing and what may be going on to trigger any sort of delinquent behavior, if any.

At this detention hearing, the judge will determine whether your child will go home (either to a parent or another relative who has agreed to take him) or be held at the detention center for another ten (10) working days until their next hearing date.  At the detention hearing, the judge will take into account five circumstances in determining whether or not to release your child:

  • Whether the child is likely to abscond or be removed from the jurisdiction of the court;
  • Whether suitable supervision, care of protection for the child is not being provided;
  • Whether there is a parent, guardian, or custodian who can return the child to court;
  • Whether the child may be dangerous to himself or others; and
  • Whether the child has been previously found to be delinquent.

If any one of these circumstances is present, the judge may continue detention for another ten (10) days.  If the judge decides to keep your child in custody, very often during the following ten (10) days, the probation officer, guardian ad litem, and others will conduct home studies for suggested placements for the child.  Sometimes, psychological and/or psychiatric evaluations are also ordered.  Typically a supervision plan will need to be in place before the child is released.

If the judge does order that your child is held for 10 more days, don’t panic.  It is not an indication of how good or bad the case is against your child or how severe the crime is necessarily, or even that your child would be in the juvenile detention facility long-term.  It is usually just a chance for probation to get a supervision plan in place that is acceptable to all parties involved.  This may mean that your child can come home to you with an adjustment in supervision, or it could mean that your child would stay with a trusted relative.  Often, if a placement is secured before the 10 business days is up, the hearing may be held sooner, so as to release the child as soon as possible.

A juvenile defense attorney can provide helpful advice throughout this process.

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Sealing Juvenile Records

What is “sealing” a juvenile record?

Under Texas Family Code Chapter 58, sealing your juvenile record releases you from the requirement that you disclose your involvement in your juvenile proceedings to any employer, state licensing, or anyone else.

What happens if my record is not sealed?

If you do not have your record sealed anyone with a “legitimate interest” may request them.  This includes potential employers, educational institutions, and future landlords.  Because these people may see your record if it is not sealed, it is important that you make sure your records are sealed if you are eligible.

Is sealing of records self-executing?

No.  Juvenile records do not seal themselves.

What about automatic restriction of access to records?

In some situations, where a child has not been convicted of a new offense since he turned 17, his juvenile records will automatically be restricted once he turns 21 years old.  This is not as powerful as an actual sealing of the records, but it does restrict the access of the records such that only government agencies are able to look at them (i.e., for purposes of investigation).  It is important to note that automatic restriction of access to records does not happen in certain types of cases—for example, gang-related cases, cases which require a juvenile to register as a sex offender, or habitual felony conduct.

How does the sealing process work?

First your attorney must file an Application for Sealing of Files and Records, which includes information about your juvenile case(s).  At that point a judge will determine if your records may be sealed, and he will issue an Order for the Sealing of Files and Records in your case.  After this, agencies with information about your arrest will seal those records.

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